Biography of Nelson Mandela – Mandela life History
Nelson Mandela was known as Rolihlahla Mandela. He was born on 18 July 1918 in the Madiba family in Mvezo Village, Eastern Cape. His mother is Nonqaphi Nosekeni, his father is Nkosi Mphakanyiswa Gadla Mandela, and he is Dalindyebo, the chief adviser of the acting king of Thembu People, Joan Qiong Taba. This article is written about the Biography of Nelson Mandela.
In 1930, when he was 12 years old, his father died, and the young Rolihlahla became the Jong Intaba ward in the Mqhekezweni Plaza. During the Anti-Japanese War, he heard the stories of his elders about the heroic ancestors. He also dreamed of making his own contribution to the freedom struggle of his people.
He goes to an elementary school in Qunu and his teacher Ms. Mdingane named him Nelson according to the custom of naming all elementary school students “Christian”.
He got a junior high school certificate at Clarkebury Boarding Institute, and then went on to attend Wesley Middle School, Wadeley Middle School, Healdtown, where he studied.
Mandela started his studying for a Bachelor degree of arts at Fort Hare University College but was expelled for participating in student protests and therefore he did not complete the degree there.
When the king returned to the great place of Mqhekezweni, he was very angry. He said that if he did not return to Fore Hare, he would arrange a wife for him and his cousin, the Justice. They fled to Johannesburg and got there in 1941. He served as a mine protection officer there and was introduced to Lazer Sidelsky after meeting with real estate agent Walter Sisulu. Mandela then wrote his article through the law firm Witkin, Eidelman and Sidelsky.
At the same time, he began studying for a Bachelor of Laws at the University of Witwatersrand. He himself admitted that he was a poor student and left university in 1952 without graduating. He only began to study through the University of London after being imprisoned in 1962, but he did not complete the degree either.
In 1989, in the final months of imprisonment, he obtained a bachelor of law degree through the University of South Africa. He graduated at an absentee ceremony in Cape Town.
Nelson Mandela has became more and more involved in political activities since 1942, but he did not join the African National People’s Congress until 1944 when he helped to form ANC Youth League (ANCYL). Mandela having more Services In Politics during his life history.
In 1944, he married Walter Sisulu’s cousin, nurse Evelyn Mase. They have two sons, Madiba Thembekile “Thembi” and Makgatho. Both daughters are named Makaziwe. Their first died in infancy. He and his wife divorced in 1958.
Mandela emerged from the ranks of ANCYL, and through his efforts adopted a more radical mass-based policy in 1949, the “Program of Action.”
In 1952, he was selected as the National General Volunteers of the Anti-Japanese Movement, with Maulvi Cachalia as his deputy. This civil disobedience campaign against the six unjust laws is a joint project between the ANC and the South African Indian Parliament.
He and 19 others were accused of participating in electioneering activities under the Suppression of Communism Act and sentenced to nine months of hard work and two years of probation.
In addition to a bachelor of arts degree, he also obtained a two-year law diploma, which allowed Mandela to practice in law. In August 1952, he and Oliver Tambo established the first black law firm in South Africa, namely Mandela & Tambo.
At the end of 1952, he was banned for the first time. As a restricted person, he can only watch it in secret only when the “Charter of Freedom” is passed on 26 June 1955.
Treason Trial of Mandela:
Mandela was arrested in a national police swoop on 05 December 1956, which led to the 1956 treason trial. Men and women of all races found themselves in the marathon trial until the last 28 defendants, including Mandela, were acquitted on 29 March 1961.
On March 21, 1960, the police protested the customs clearance law in Sharpeville, killing 69 unarmed people. This led to the country’s first state of emergency, and ANC and the Pan-African Congress (PAC) were banned on April 8. In the state of emergency, among the thousands of detainees were Mandela and his treason trial colleagues.
A few days before the end of the treason trial, Mandela went to Pietermaritzburg to speak at the All-Africa Conference. The conference decided that he should write to Prime Minister Warwald, requesting the establishment of a national convention on a non-racial constitution and warned him that he should disagree.
South Africa will become a national strike for the Republic. After he and his colleagues were acquitted in a treason trial, Mandela went underground and plans to hold a national strike on March 29, 30 and 31.
On 11 January 1962, Mandela changed his name to David Motsamayi and left South Africa in secret. He traveled around Africa and visited England to win support for the armed struggle. He received military training in Morocco and Ethiopia and returned to South Africa in July 1962.
On August 5, he returned to the United States from KwaZulu-Natal and was arrested in a police roadblock outside Howick.
Mandela was accused of leaving the country without permission and inciting workers to strike. He was convicted and sentenced to five years’ imprisonment, and he began serving his sentence in Pretoria Regional Prison.
He was transferred to Robben Island on 27 May 27 1963, and returned to Pretoria on June 12. In less than a month, the police raided Liliesleaf, a secret hideout in Rivonia, Johannesburg, for use by ANC and Communist activists. Some of his comrades were also arrested.
On 09 October 1963, the trial in which Mandela was disrupted with 10 others was called the Rivonia Trial. Facing the death penalty, his speech in court at the end of his famous “Speech from the Pier” on 20 April 1964 was immortal:
On 11 June 1964, Mandela and seven other defendants Walter Sisulu, Ahmed Kathrada, Govan Mbeki, Raymond Mhlaba, Denis Goldberg, Elias Motsoaledi and Andrew Mlangeni were convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment the next day. Goldberg was sent to the Pretoria prison because he was white, and the others went to Robben Island.
Mandela’s mother died in 1968, and his eldest son Thembi died in 1969. He was forbidden to attend their funeral. On 31 March 1982, Mandela was transferred to Poulsmoor Prison in Cape Town along with Sisulu, Mhlaba and Mlangeni. Kathrada joined them in October.
In November 1985, he returned to prison after prostate surgery, and Mandela was detained alone. Attorney General Kobie Coetsee visited him in the hospital. Later, Mandela initiated discussions on the final meeting between the apartheid government and the ANC.
Release to Prison:
On 12 August 1988, he was taken to the hospital and was diagnosed with tuberculosis. After staying in two hospitals for more than three months, he was transferred to a house in Victor West Prison near Paarl on 07 December 1988, where he spent the last 14 months. Imprisonment.
He was released on Sunday, 11 February 1990, nine days after the ANC and PAC lifted the ban, and nearly four months after his remaining comrade Rivonia was released. Throughout his imprisonment, he rejected at least three conditional release conditions.
Mandela was engrossed in the formal talks to end white minority rule and was elected chairman of the ANC in 1991 to replace his sick friend Oliver Tambo. In 1993, he and President De Klerk (FW de Klerk) jointly won the Nobel Peace Prize, and on 27 April 1994, he voted for the first time in his life.
Become President :
On 10 May 1994 Mandela was inaugurated as South Africa’s first democratically elected President. On his 80th birthday in 1998 he married Graça Machel, his third wife. Mandela was one of the Great President In the History of africa.
True to his promise, Mandela stepped down in 1999 after one term as President. He continued to work with the Nelson Mandela Children’s Fund he set up in 1995 and established the Nelson Mandela Foundation and The Mandela Rhodes Foundation.
In April 2007, his grandson Mandla Mandela was appointed as the head of the Mwezo Traditional Committee. He appointed as the head at a ceremony held in the main square of Mwezo. Nelson Mandela is unswervingly committed to democracy, equality and learning.
Despite severe provocations, he never answered racism with racism. His life provides inspiration for all oppressed and deprived people. And all those who oppose oppression and deprivation. He died at his home in Johannesburg on 05 December 2013. His life history ends from the earth but not from the hearts of People.